- The development of characteristic symptoms after a psychologically traumatic event that is generally
outside the range of usual human experience.
- Re-experiencing the traumatic event
- Avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma
- Numbing of general responsiveness
- Symptoms related to increased arousal
- Recurrent nightmares
- Exaggerated startle response
- Changes in aggression.
- Anxiety(severe to panic) fear may be related to current memory of past traumatic life event, threat to
self-concept/death, change in environment, and negative self-talk, possibly evidenced by increased
tension/wariness, sense of helplessness, apprehension fearfulness, uncertainty/confusion, restlessness,
somatic complaints, sense of impending doom, and sympathetic stimulation with cardiovascular
- Powerlessness may be related to being overwhelmed by symptoms of anxiety and lifestyle of
helplessness/poor coping skills, possibly evidenced by verbal expression of lack of control over present
situation/future outcome, reluctance to express true feelings, dependence on others, passivity and/or anger,
and non-participation in care or decision making when opportunities are provided.
- Violence, high risk for; directed at self/others which may be related to a startle reaction, an intrusive
memory of an event causing a sudden acting-out of a feeling as if the event were occurring, use of
alcohol/other drugs to ward off painful effects and produce psychic numbing, breaking through the rage that
has been walled off, response to intense anxiety or panic state, and loss of control.
- Coping, ineffective individual may be related to personal vulnerability, inadequate support system,
unrealistic perceptions, unmet expectations, overwhelming threat to self and multiple stressors repeated
over period of time, possibly evidenced by verbalization of inability to cope or difficulty asking for help,
muscular tension/headaches, chronic worry, and emotional tension.
- Grieving, dysfunctional may be related to actual/perceived object loss (loss of self as seen before the
traumatic incident occurred as well as other losses incurred in/after the incident), loss of
physio-psycho-social well being, thwarted grieving response to a loss, and lack of resolution of previous
grieving response, possibly evidenced by verbal expression of distress at loss, anger, sadness, labile affect,
alterations in eating habits/sleep and dream patterns/libido, reliving of past experiences, expression of guilt
and alterations in concentration.
- Sleep pattern disturbance may be related to psychological stress (anxiety, depression with recurring
disruptive dreams), possibly evidenced by verbal complaints of difficulty in falling asleep/not feeling
well-rested, insomnia and reports of sleep disturbance (nightmares, dreams of personal death,
disaster-related dreams, flashbacks, intrusive/trauma images, hyper- somnia.)
- Family processes, altered may be related to situational crisis, possibly evidenced by expressions of
confusion about what to do and that they are having difficulty coping, family system not meeting
physical/emotional/spiritual needs of its members, not adapting to change or dealing with traumatic
experience constructively, and ineffective family decision-making process.
- This disorder may last for decades. Re-assurance and learning to cope with this are the only treatments.
Medications are available.
Offered by Debra.